Structured Cabling

Introduction:

Structured cabling is building of campus telecommunications cabling infrastructure that consists of a number of standardized smaller elements (hence structured) called subsystems. Structured cabling design and installation is governed by a set of standards that specify wiring data centers, offices, and apartment buildings for data or voice communications using various kinds of cable, most commonly category 5e (CAT-5e), category 6 (CAT-6), and fiber optic cabling and modularconnectors. These standards define how to lay the cabling in various topologies in order to meet the needs of the customer, typically using a central patch panel (which is normally 19 inch rack-mounted), from where each modular connection can be used as needed. Each outlet is then patched into a network switch (normally also rack-mounted) for network use or into an IP or PBX (private branch exchange) telephone system Patch Panel.

 

Overview of Data Cabling:

Voice and data cabling enable people around the world to communicate by phone, fax, and computer. It is the basis for virtually every network. Today's voice and data cabling is engineered to balance high performance with moderate expense. The quality of the service provided by the cabling is directly related to the quality of the installation. Properly installed cabling will provide years of service for networks, in most cases outlasting virtually every device connected to it.The other major user of cabling is the computer industry. Whereas the telephone companies dictated the type of cable to be used, early network systems were proprietary, that is, dictated by the company that developed them. In many cases, the choice of a computer dictated the allowable peripherals. This, in turn, dictated the cabling so that printers could only use printer cables, removable storage devices could only use removable storage cables, and terminals could only use terminal cables. The differences in cables were not merely ones that could be easily resolved by using adapters or other means. Thus, multiple types of cables (thick eco-axial, twin ax, and RS-232 cables,  for  example)  were  often  required  within  the  same  office  to  connect  computers, peripherals, and other hardware.

With the increase in popularity of the personal computer, networking hardware began to become standardized, particularly for cabling. The first popular type of cabling was a type of copper                
cable, called coaxial, Copper Media. This was soon replaced by another type of copper wiring
called twisted-. Twisted pair was the same wire used by telephones. As the demand for faster
connections with less noise on the line increased, manufacturers improved upon twisted-pair
cables by adding more pairs, increasing the number of twists, and adding shielding materials.
Modern twisted-pair cables, such as Category 5, 5e, and 6, have four pairs of wires that have
more twists than earlier types. The quality and data handling capability of these cables are so
superior to earlier versions that it has become feasible to use one wiring system for both phones
and computers.The concept of using a single wiring scheme to handle all voice, data, and other services like video is called STRUCTURED CABLING. Structured cabling also includes all the devices that cable is pulled through, the equipment that cable is terminated at, and the electronic devices that connect users and resources. Now two previously separate technologies are being combined into one communications system. The result is more manageable wiring systems, lower maintenance costs, more flexibility, and more scalability.

 

The need for high-quality cabling:

Cabling is the physical medium that connects modern communication and data systems together. Without proper cabling, communications could not exist. The job of the cable installer is to provide good, technically accurate cabling between all of the communications devices such as Telephones, fax machines, computers, or automated industrial equipment that keep businesses running Cabling will be in for years. It is more economical for customers to pay a little more up front to make sure the job is done right, conforms to standards, and is scalable.A network that cuts corners by using lower grade cabling, inexperienced installers, or does not conform to standards, will cost the customer more in the end when users complain about slow speed or connection problems. Network administrators’ waste time troubleshooting problems caused by poor installation, and the network needs outgrow the cabling installed.